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The Choral Music of Domenico BartolucciBy Aurelio Porfiri, Choral Conductor, Organist and TeacherToday the word ‘tradition’ sounds strange for many people. This word is highly esteemed by some and equally highly disregarded by others. And when we speak of tradition referring to music we cannot forget the development that the musical language has undergone in the previous century, a development that in a certain way went against tradition.

But indeed some voices, even in the tormented past century, stand to affirm a role for tradition and for music tradition. One of those voices is the one of Domenico Bartolucci, Catholic priest, composer and conductor, a protagonist in the world of church music not only for his music but also for his strong personality. His music, which would deserve to be better known, it is sung throughout the world, and he is still active in the musical world, despite his considerable age. Tradition for him is not a word to be ashamed of, but it means richness. For people like him that live as Catholic church musicians, tradition means Gregorian chant and Renaissance polyphony, the repertoires that the church has always considered an example of what liturgical music should be.

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I was his student for several years in the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music, and I still, even today, have the pleasure of visiting him and talking with him about these and other topics. I remember how he insists on safeguarding this repertory: he never advocates that we should stop there (as some people wrongly argued) but he affirms that this repertoire is a great model also for new compositions. And he has shown in his own music how this is true. Some people accuse his music of not being ‘modern’.

Now, this would take us too far. But analyzing his music one may be surprised: indeed you can see that the dissonances and modern chords are there, but the wise treatment of these devices stops them being disturbing. When I pointed this out to him, he told me that this is because in his musical language there is a logic, so even that which is not consonant does not grate on the listener. He is a follower of the Roman school of choral music, so let’s first say something about this.The ‘Scuola Romana’The Italian term ‘Scuola Romana’, meaning Roman school, can be applied to various artistic disciplines, such as the Roman school of painting, the Roman school of architecture. There is also a Roman school of music, or more particularly the Roman school of liturgical music which saw its days of glory in the Renaissance. In Rome, the Renaissance is particularly important: the presence of the Pope and the Papal court, indeed, attracted the best artists throughout the Catholic world. But what is the origin of this Roman school?

We have to go way back to the 14 th century when the Popes resided in Avignon. There, the singers began to weave the first polyphonies into Gregorian chant. It is quite fun to recall the bull of Pope John XXII’s ‘Docta Sanctorum Patrum’ of 1324, in which he condemned his Flemish singers for their excessive experiments with polyphony. But, to be true, he never condemned the thing in itself.

Only decades later would such experiments be encouraged. Now the Flemish art of counterpoint reached an unimaginably high technical level, although very often it was a mere display of virtuosity. These great Flemish singers moved to Rome with the Pope, came into contact with the great Italian musicians, who also became part of the Papal choir, many thanks to the Italianisation of the Papal curia. The Flemish art of polyphony interacted with typically Mediterranean singability, reaching its greatest glory in the 16 th century.


This is what we call the Scuola Romana.The characteristics of this school are:. high singability. remarkable attention to each singer in the choir – there were only one or two to each part.

great attention to the text. strict adherence to the liturgical rite (music was written with great respect for the spirituality and the requirements of each moment of the liturgy). great respect for traditionThe repertoires that embrace all these qualities are Gregorian chant and Renaissance polyphony.

It is worth remembering that western music owes an enormous amount to the musical practice of the Catholic church, which gave birth to the very rich variety of musical forms, both sacred and profane, that mark the glory of our civilisation.Domenico BartolucciDomenico Bartolucci was born in Borgo San Lorenzo, a small town near Florence, in 1917. Just for historical context, let us take a look at the most significant events of that year. The First World War was still raging; on 6 April the US declared war on Germany.

Towards the end of the year the October revolution broke out in Russia. Just one week after the birth of Bartolucci one of the most important apparitions in church history took place in a small Portuguese village known as Fatima. Italy in those years was still largely agricultural, as was the hometown of Bartolucci. His mother was a farmer and his father was a worker who sang in church although not as a professional singer. Musical life was very rich even in very small towns; there were choirs, music groups, opera companies, and of course many musical activities related to the Catholic liturgy. Talking to me, he always remembers those times, when Italy was still a rural country and life, he keeps mentioning, was simpler and more beautiful.

He said that music was ‘in the air’, you could breathe music everywhere. When he was still young, Bartolucci already experienced a double vocation: to be a musician as well as a priest. Having finished his primary education, Bartolucci entered the seminary at Florence, where he also dedicated himself to music by singing as a choirboy in the choir of the seminary. He began to study music with the choirmaster, Francesco Bagnoli. Studying the piano was not very easy at the seminary; the young Bartolucci eventually made himself a keyboard out of cardboard so that he could practise.

At the age of 12, he composed a mass and an Ave Verum for 2 voices. Four years later, he wrote another mass, by now with better technique and very original musical themes. This mass, originally for 4 mixed voice parts, was revised years later and turned into a mass for 5 mixed voices enriched by an orchestra.

This is one of the most impressive compositions by Bartolucci, known as Missa Assumptionis. Before his 20 th birthday, he had already written two of his most significant symphonic and choral compositions: the rustic Symphony and the Oratorio La Tempesta sul Lago (The Tempest on the Lake). In 1939, at the age of 22, he obtained his diploma in composition and choir conducting at the Conservatory of Florence. This diploma really displays the very special gifts of the young master: he satisfied all the examiners in all the subjects, major and minor alike, in only two sessions of exams between July and October of the same year, which would require of most students ten years of study. He was ordained a priest in the same year.

At the end of 1942, he was sent to Rome for further studies, especially for the study of the Roman choral tradition. In Rome he became the vice-choirmaster of the Basilica of St John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome. But the Second World War made him return to his own town.

In this politically dramatic period, he wrote other important symphonic choral works, such as The Passion (an oratorio) and a piano concerto in E. At the end of the war in 1945, he returned to Rome, where he obtained a higher degree in composition and choir conducting at the Academy of St. Cecilia under the direction of the famous Italian composer Ildebrando Pizzetti. He was also awarded a diploma of composition by the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome.

In 1947, he became the parish priest in a small town near Florence, but he continued to dedicate himself also to composition. The sacred poem Baptisma for soloists, women’s choir and orchestra belongs to this period. In the same year, that is 1947, he was called to Rome to become choirmaster of the Basilica of St Mary Major (a position that he would hold for decades) and also professor of composition and polyphonic music at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music, where he taught until 1997. In 1952 he was appointed vice-conductor of the Sistine Chapel Choir – as the principal conductor Lorenzo Perosi had long been ill. Lorenzo Perosi dominated the scene of Italian sacred music in the first half of the last century.

A very talented musician, Perosi was under the strong influence of late Romanticism which put him against the defendants of the pure Roman tradition. His music is still very popular, and he is the subject of many books and much research.

He was conductor of the Sistine Chapel Choir for 59 years. After Perosi’s death, Pope Pius XII made Bartolucci the Perpetual Master of the Sistine Chapel choir, a position he occupied until he retired in 1997. Bartolucci brought about a reform in the choir. He secured a budget, primarily thanks to Pope John XXXIII. He introduced new voices and he replaced the falsettists with boy singers (known as ‘voci bianche’) for the top parts. It was a very ambitious undertaking. In 1965 he was nominated fellow of the Academy of St.

Cecilia, a title which he shares with many internationally renowned musicians. Bartolucci gave many, many concerts with the Sistine Chapel Choir both in Italy and overseas, and his catalogue of compositions became very fat: published in 40 volumes, they include motets, masses, oratorios, organ pieces and symphonic choral works as well as other compositions for piano, violin and ensembles. In 1968 one of his motets in six parts was chosen by the famous American singer Perry Como and recorded with English words by Ray Charles and a special musical arrangement. Since retiring in 1997, as mentioned, he continues to be very active as a conductor and composer.

In November 2010, Pope Benedict XVI made him a Cardinal of the Catholic Church, a great honour in recognition of the huge achievements of his musical life.The new Cardinal Domenico BartolucciThe musical language of BartolucciThe 1920s, Bartolucci’s formative years, are very important for the entire musical world. In those years, the age-old tonal harmony was dashed to pieces by Schoenberg in Germany. Even in France, musicians tried other ways to free themselves from the domination of tonality. Many composers tried new harmonies, often rediscovering modality as a possible new language. Ravel and Debussy often used modes, although not systematically.

It would be useful to analyze Bartolucci’s music by comparing it to the changing musical language of that epoch. Such comparison will be meaningful only if we take into account the cultural atmosphere and the environment in which Bartolucci wrote his music.1) Roman church musicianLet us note that Bartolucci as a musician is profoundly Christian and profoundly involved in liturgical life. Bartolucci belongs to the world of masses, prayers, cantors and organs. We can understand neither his person nor his musical language without seeing him in this perspective. His art belongs to the common people, in a sense that it works with a simple and spontaneous faith, and at times, it feels that to belong to the people is the sole reason for the existence of his music. This spiritual power, which he took from the people, will be transformed into notes and then returned to the people. The church singer connects the people with God through his art: s/he expresses to God the devotion of the people; s/he shows the people a little of the beauty of God.

For this reason it is very important to learn the art as a craftsman would, learning by working near those who are more expert, by acquiring tradition.There is a text in which he speaks about the function and the mission of a cantor: “ Let us consider what “Cantor of the Church” means. Cantor of the Church means herald of the Holy Scripture.

One can also say that he is a minister who preaches by singing. Therefore the cantor in a liturgy is a real minister who should present, through the art of singing, a holy text: a text that is sung may reach the souls of the believers more effectively.

Music in a church is not only there in order to decorate the liturgical functions. Its fundamental role is to add force, to extol, to vitalise the holy text, so that it may penetrate more efficiently the souls of the believers”. By Guy Jansen, Chair of the New Zealand Choral FederationCommunity choirs flourished in New Zealand from the 1830’s when pioneer settlers began bringing their musical traditions from England, Scotland, Wales and many other European countries.

English choral repertoire predominated, and musicians sought to replicate choral life as they remembered it in their ‘home country’. The first people of the land – the Maori people – had already loved to sing on their maraes (meeting grounds and houses) and in tribal gatherings, and in the modern era Maori choir festivals have played a major part in communal life. Research evidence suggests that many more 6 and 7 year olds of Maori and Pacific Islands heritage can accurately match pitch than European children. To an extent the Maori and European cultures have impacted each other’s choral styles, and it is particularly impressive and exciting to hear the new resonance, range of colours and energy in the New Zealand Youth Choir and the NZ Secondary Students’ Choir since these groups have become more multi-cultural in their make-up.The success of some of the mainly European community choirs is another major thread in the story of choral music in New Zealand. Two of the larger choirs, the Royal Christchurch Musical Society (Robert Field-Dodgson), and the Harmonic Society (William Hawkey) in Christchurch, were invited to travel overseas in the second part of the 20 th century, while two smaller groups in Wellington: Stanley Oliver’s Schola Cantorum, and Maxwell Fernie’s Schola Polyphonica made excellent recordings of the most demanding of classic Western literature. These and other choirs throughout the country nurtured musicians who became future leaders in all kinds of musical endeavour.Many New Zealanders also gained a rich musical education in their secondary school days if they were fortunate to attend a school with a chorally-minded Head of Music Department, for example, Ralph Lilly, Nelson College and Dr Vernon Griffiths at King Edward Technical College, Dunedin. The latter teacher was brought to New Zealand from England by the Government to Christchurch Training College in the late 1920’s, but when the Great Depression necessitated the closing of all Teachers’ Colleges, Griffiths took up a position at that Dunedin school.

There he established a quite breath-taking, visionary scheme that inspired others to involve their whole school in choral singing. One of the first teachers in that scheme was Frank Callaway, later Sir Frank Callaway, President of the International Society for Music Education, and lifelong choral conductor, even after retiring from being Professor at the University of Western Australia.At the elementary (primary) school level, first-class national radio broadcasts to schools featured Mr Tom Young’s children’s choir at Kelburn School, Wellington as the model choir. Over a nearly fifty year period this seminal radio resource was guided by leading choral musician-teachers such as Val Drew, Robert Matthews, Valerie Hitchings and Wilbur Manins.

Impressive choral singing seemed to spring up wherever dedicated musicians taught in schools.William Walden-Mills (National Adviser in School Music, 1958 – 74, and a keen choral musician) began National Holiday Choral Courses for Secondary Schools in 1964, raising the profile of choral activity over the next ten years, and encouraging the founding of dozens of madrigal groups around the country. As his successor I recommended, in 1976, the introduction of a vocal section within an existing nation-wide schools’ music contest.

This popular vocal section was later handed over to the Department of Education and then eventually to the New Zealand Choral Federation after it was formed in July 1985. What began as an add-on to an established instrumental festival has now become the ‘NZCF Big Sing’, a huge musical phenomenon involving a large percentage of secondary schools, one of the largest competitive events in the country, and fostering world-class performances from top choirs at the National Finales. Two further initiatives also helped build choral activity in secondary schools: the creation of free group vocal tuition in 1977, and the formation of the New Zealand Youth Choir in 1979 – the first of its kind in the world.Some graduates of the NZ Youth Choir have become soloists in opera, oratorio, lieder or music theatre, but more have turned to choir direction of school and chamber choirs in particular. August 2011Dear friends,Just having returned from the Ninth World Symposium on Choral Music in Puerto Madryn, Argentina, I find myself reflecting on what proved to be a true adventure.Normally, when one attends a World Symposium, one expects to hear great choirs, attend educationally-focused lectures, examine the latest in publications, have tour opportunities, and see new gear from exhibitors, all in a beautiful and welcoming environment. This was all true of the experience in Argentina.Our hundreds of Argentinean hosts, lead by Daniel Garavano, worked extremely hard against many odds to bring the world a Symposium that was worthy of our membership’s loyalty. Where the adventure came into play was through the world economic crisis, the turmoil of the Argentine political scene, and the Puyehue volcano in the Andes Mountains of southern Chile. Faced with increasing challenges, our colleagues fought on, and in the last week before the Symposium—when the volcano ash shifted back to the south of Argentina canceling flights—they seriously contemplated canceling the Symposium.

Instead they opted for “plan B” to get over a thousand people to Puerto Madryn by bus—certainly an interesting addendum to the travel itinerary!After five years of planning, this can only be viewed as an act of courage. It led to some problems with miscommunication, a modification of venues, and a certain amount of disorganization. They compressed the Symposium from eight days to six, and tried to convey to the participants and choirs a new daily schedule—a formidable task.I have been to every World Symposium since the first in Vienna, and the Argentinean Symposium stands out as the most heroic by the organizing committee, participants, choirs, lecturers, and exhibitors. I want to thank everyone for their own personal defiance of the negative and their seeming never-ending quest for the positives that only a world Symposium can bring.I shall never forget the opening night of Tango, the depiction of the founding of the Welsh community and its peaceful blending with the indigenous cultures, the orchestra and combined Argentinean choirs performance. The week was filled with outstanding performances by all the invited choirs, interesting and intriguing information conveyed by the guest lecturers, and the breadth of publications and opportunities displayed by the exhibitors.It was important that IFCM went to South America.

It fulfilled a long-standing core of IFCM’s mission: to exchange culture through choral music throughout the entire world. Our Latin American friends have always been key players in the world’s choral music scene, and I congratulate them for the persistence and tenacity that they displayed at this Symposium.With my thanks to all,Dr. Anderson, IFCM President. Create a New Era of Chinese Choral MusicBy Qi Shen, Artistic Project AdviserChina International Choral Festival and IFCM sing on “Tutti”November 15, 2010, Beijing.

One of the organizers of China International Choral Festival, the CAEG (China Arts and Entertainment Group) signed a cooperation agreement with the IFCM (International Federation of Choral Music). In July 2012, two parties will hold a seven-day festival “The 11th International Choral Festival and IFCM World Choral Summit”. This is obviously a powerful combination of the two sides, which makes it possible to launch the preparations for the Summit and Choral Festival two years in advance. The development not only creates a new era of Chinese choral music, but also shows CAEG’s ambition to become a leader of the world’s choral music.Opening Ceremony of the 10th China International Choral Festival in Beijing, 2010Together with the giant, to build a choral brandIFCM is the official representative of choral music on the International Music Council of UNESCO.

The Council recognizes that there are perhaps more people in the world participating in choral music than in any other group activity and that choral musicians need an organization such as IFCM to encourage and facilitate international communication and cooperation. IFCM is the official representative of choral music with the most broadly representative and most authoritative professional background in the world. Administered by the Chinese Ministry of Culture, the CAEG has a strong international cultural exchange experience and is widely acclaimed for its cultural activities operations. The CAEG has been the organizer of China’s only state-level international choral event – “China International Choral Festival “- for twenty years.The 10th China International Choral Festival was successfully held this summer, and received the support and assistance of IFCM.

The signing of the agreement marks a formal way to establish a steady cooperation side by side with the “giant”, and to lay an important cornerstone for the future development of the China International Choral Festival. “We are very pleased to sign such a cooperation agreement with IFCM. Collaborating only with giants could be the fastest way to catch up with the trend, and only with the influence of giants can we build our choral brand more with less,” says Mr.

Zhang Yu, President of CAEG.IFCM operates on a non-profit basis, which is an important reason why they choose CAEG as a partner. Anderson, President of IFCM, says enthusiastically: “IFCM has created and built projects all over the world for more than 28 years, utilizing very experienced volunteers and choral-music professionals.

But this project intrigues me more than all the others because it is breaking new ground for us, and we will be working with a new partner – China. I feel confident that the world will agree with me and the organization presidents and choirs, from all around the world, will look forward to the day in 2012 when, together, we produce the 11th China International Choral Festival and IFCM World Choral Summit!”Why work together?Choral music in China is the most widely enjoyed music form for the public. Today, China has tens of thousands of amateur choral organizations. Choral music is also widely appreciated in the world. Representing choral groups from more than eighty countries on five continents, the IFCM is the most professional and authoritative organization in the world.Choral conductors and professionals in Beijing are convinced that IFCM is significant for the China International Choral Festival: the fact that IFCM is the most representative organization underlines the fact that choral music has a rich connotation in the five continents; the development and integration which cultural diversity brings to choral music are the main themes of our time.

Let’s Sing Together with ‘Solidarity’ – 11 December 2011Francesco Leonardi IFCM Project ManagerSinging together is a basic activity that exercises tolerance, sympathy, and awareness of others, towards the common goal of communicating and involving other people in a shared experience of beauty. This approach is a fundamental trademark that each singer in a choir shares with his/her fellow singers, and is part of the roots of choral music. By Christine Argyle, Choral Conductor and TeacherAccording to a recent study, more New Zealanders sing in choirs than partake in almost any other leisure activity.

By Karen Grylls, Choral Conductor and TeacherNational choirs have played a large part in establishing New Zealand’s profile abroad, both in the commissioning of new works from composers and in the participation in festivals and international choral competitions. Certainly, over the past decade, many more community and school choirs have added to this profile worldwide.Just last week Voices New Zealand Chamber Choir returned from the 9 th World Choral Symposium in Argentina.

It was the first time Voices had participated in a world choral symposium and, more significantly for us, Taonga p ū oro artist, Horomona Horo, was part of our artistic team. This marked a giant step forward in our collaborations with indigenous musicians and musical traditions. For the first time there were commissions written for a chamber choir with parts actually notated for the Taonga p ū oro instruments. The performance and commissioning of works from our talented NZ composers have continued to be strengths in the New Zealand Youth Choir’s repertoire, as with Voices New Zealand Chamber Choir and the New Zealand Secondary Students’ Choir.Horomona Horo, Taonga Puoro Artists at WSCM9 playing the pkea (wooden trumpet)It was Elise Bradley and her excellent school choir Key Cygnetures at Westlake Girls’ High School Auckland who first established contact with Aroha Cassidy-Nanai, then a member of the renowned kapahaka group Te Waka Huia and also on the staff at Westlake.

Through this association, the first Māori waiata were gifted to and performed by a European choir. My introduction to Māori waiata came in 1993 when Keri Kaa and Te Taite Cooper visited the Youth Choir rehearsals at Queen Margaret College.

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I remember with great humility the kete (flax basket) that was presented to me by Keri prior to our ’93 tour. Our knowledge and understanding of the waiata happened through the people we met. Piripi Monroe first played Ka Waiata to me on his ukelele in his living room. It was he who suggested that sashes with a Māori motif might be added to our green uniforms. I was very glad to have Te Rauhina Williams’ approval – she thought that the design was very good.

We needed to make the right decision. Thus new life was breathed into the green uniforms. Tihei mauriora! It was indeed a new beginning for the Youth Choir.Without reservation, the most significant development in my 22 years with the NZ Youth Choir has been the relationship built with Te Waka Huia, Ngapo and Pimia Wehi, Aroha Cassidy-Nanai and Bussy Nanai over 16 years.

The opportunity to be taught by and work with special people from the best of the kapahaka groups in NZ has been the greatest gift (thanks to Graham Hoffman of NZCF who introduced us). This long association has seen us performing together, Te Waka Huia and the NZ National Youth Choir, on the stage of the Sydney Opera House, and since then kapahaka items and music have been gifted to us from Waka Huia.

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I can remember the very first performance of Kua rongo in Holy Trinity Cathedral Auckland with NZ Youth Choir and Waka Huia, prior to our leaving for Sydney. A wonderful moment: the two groups were on stage in full flight, while Ngapo and I peered nervously through the screens at the back of the stage area like proud parents.Dr. Guy Jansen founded the New Zealand Youth Choir in 1979 and the NZ Secondary Students;’ Choir in 1986, as choirs that would give young singers opportunities that would otherwise not be available to them in their regions. Meetings were twice/three times a year and singers came together from all around the country to sing. Over the years they have performed with the NZ Symphony Orchestra, with such artists as Dame Kiri Te Kanawa and Jonathan Lemalu and with such conductors as Vladimir Ashkenazy (Mahler 8), Howard Shore (Lord of the Rings) and James MacMillan with the Hilliard Ensemble (The Quickening).The membership of the national choirs is dependent upon the choral activities across the country. Terence Maskell’s work with Aorere College choirs earlier, and currently with The Graduate Choir, for example, has led to excellent Polynesian singers joining the ranks of the national choirs. As the demographic of New Zealand has changed over the years, so the national choirs are now populated with the mix of cultures that call New Zealand home.The larger vision is that these three choirs espouse excellence in choral singing: the Secondary Students’ Choir caters for singers aged 14-18, the NZ Youth Choir for singers aged 18-25 and Voices NZ Chamber Choir aspires to be a professional chamber choir.

Traditionally, Walmart leadership attempts to integrate the values of its founder Sam Walton into the organizational culture in order to improve employee morale with positive implications on the bottom line. In 1988 the roles of Chairman and CEO were separated and today these roles are performed by Gregory B. Penner and Doug McMillion respectively.Doug McMillion has assumed Walmart leadership position in February 2014 and a range of initiatives introduce by the new CEO include enhancing the priority for customer services via employee training and development and increasing wages of floor-level employees and focusing on improving nutritional aspects of foods.

Walmart leadership academy, instituted in 2009 aims to accelerate the preparedness of leaders and is modelled after the Royal Military Academy SandhurstWalmartorganizational structure is highly hierarchical due to the massive size of the company. In other words, the company employs about 2.2 million people globally and therefore, there is no alternative organizational structure for Walmart to ensure effective management of such a large number of employees.The Board of Directors consists 16 members and it includes two members of Walton family, as well as, young, but proven business executives such as Kevin Systrom, CEO and Co-Founder, Instagram and Marissa A.

MayerPresident and CEO of Yahoo!, Inc.Walmart organizational structure at the very top executive has a pattern as illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 2 Walmart organizational structure at operational levelconstitutes a comprehensive analysis of Walmart business strategy. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis and McKinsey 7S Model on Walmart.

Moreover, the report contains analyses of Walmart’s marketing strategy and discusses the issues of corporate social responsibility.Wall Street Journal (2012) Available at: Report (2015) Walmart Stores Inc.

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